Assembler “as-ssem” is a simple language that compiles SSEM instructions into binary output and SSEM memory. Source code has
.ssem file extension, and binary form has a
.bin file extension.
The instructions table follows (modified from Wikipedia):
|000||JMP S||S(L) -> CI||Jump to the instruction at the address obtained from the specified memory address |
|100||JRP / JPR / JMR S||CI + S(L) -> CI||Jump to the instruction at the program counter ( |
|010||LDN S||-S(L) -> A||Take the number from the specified memory address |
|110||STO S||A -> S(L)||Store the number in the accumulator to the specified memory address |
|001 or 101||SUB S||A - S(L) -> A||Subtract the number at the specified memory address |
|011||CMP / SKN||if A<0 then CI+1->CI||Skip next instruction if the accumulator contains a negative value|
|111||STP / HLT||Stop|
The instructions are stored in a memory, which had 32 cells. Each cell was 32 bits long, and each instruction fit into exactly one cell. So each instruction has 32 bits. The bit representation was reversed, so the most and the least significant bits were put on opposite sides. For example, value
3, in common personal computers represented as
011, was in SSEM represented as
The instruction format is as follows:
LLLLL denote a “line”, which is basically the memory address - index of a memory cell. It can be understood as an instruction operand. Bits
III specify the instruction opcode (3 bits are enough for 7 instructions).
New-line character (LF, CR, or CRLF) are delimiters of instructions and the last character of the program. Successive empty new-line characters will be ignored.
Assembler supports all forms of instructions. All instructions must start with a line number. For example:
01 LDN 20
Raw number constants can be defined in separate lines using special preprocessor keywords. The first one is
NUM xxx, where
xxx is a number in either decimal or hexadecimal form. The hexadecimal format must start with prefix
0x. For example:
00 NUM 0x20 01 NUM 1207943145
Another keyword is
BNUM xxx, where
xxx can be only a binary number. For example:
01 BNUM 10011011111000101111110000111111
It means that the number will be stored untouched to the memory in the format as it appears in the binary form.
There exists also a third keyword,
BINS xxx, with the exact meaning as
For all constants, the following rules hold. Only integral constants are supported, and the allowed range is from 0-31 (maximum is 2^5).
One-line comments are supported in various forms. Generally, the comment is everything starting with some prefix until the end of the line. Comment prefixes are:
- Double-slash (
- Semi-colon (
- Double-dash (
For example, simple
5+3 addition can be implemented as follows:
0 LDN 7 // load negative X into the accumulator 1 SUB 8 // subtract Y from the value in the accumulator 2 STO 9 // store the sum at address 7 3 LDN 9 // A = -(-Sum) 4 STO 9 // store sum 5 HLT 7 NUM 3 // X 8 NUM 5 // Y 9 // here will be the result
The accumulator should now contain value
8, as well as memory cell at index 9.